Water Is The Original Alien Soup

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The Characteristics of Water


Water is formed of three elemental particles, or atoms, two of hydrogen and one of oxygen, expressed H2O, which is one of the simplest of all compounds. The three atoms are held together by two chemical bonds, thus H-O-H. Hydrogen is first of the elements with one electron, Oxygen has 8 electrons. The 8 outer electrons in H2O tend to form four pairs of electrons that are as far apart as they can be and still attracted to the Oxygen nucleus. Thus they are near the corners of a tetrahedron, a solid bounded by four sides.

The properties of water arise from the hydrogen bonding and the tetrahedral (4 sided) arrangement of electron pairs around the oxygen atom. There is an extreme stability in the chemical bond of H2O.

Another feature of the water molecule is that H attached to O is unsymetrically surrounded by electrons, so that there is a separation of charge or polar character. If other molecules with non binding outer electrons are present, there is a TENDENCY for H to increase the symmetry of its surroundings by approaching a pair of electrons in line with its chemical bond to oxygen, or 2e-H-O in a line. The resulting attraction, in case the 2e are on another water molecule, is about 6 percent (6%) as great as that of the H-O bond.

The properties of water are based on the principles of molecular bonding. The properties can be divided into two classes, depending on whether the chemical bonds between Hydrogen and Oxygen are broken, or only the Hydrogen bonds. Chemical changes like the rusting of iron, or the splitting of cane sugar in the stomach are of the first class, in which chemical bonds are broken. Phyical changes, like the melting of ice, or evaporation, are of the second class. Physical interaction is also used to describe solvent action and the maintenance of structures, such as the structures of flesh, or leaves.

Water, when heated, evaporates very slowly in comparison to other liquids with simple molecules.

A force is required to pull water apart, and thereby create two new surfaces. This property is called cohesion, or water tension. The surface tension of water is much higher than that of other liquids due to the hydrogen bonding. From the surface tension of water it can be calculated that to rupture a column of water 1 inch square would take a force of about 210,000 pounds, which is a theoretical figure that cannot be reached due to flaws in the water structure and dissolved gasses which cause bubbles. But a practical limit of about one percent of the maximum, 2000 pounds a square inch, has been attained. The limiting tensile strength of water thus is about the same as some steels.

The distinct and stark cohesive and adhesive properties of water together manifest often as Capillarity or wick action, a very important aspect of plant growth and retention of water in the soil. Waters cohesive and adhesive properties are, again, a product of Hydrogen Bonding and the interaction thereof with other types of materials.

Water is odorless in pure form, appearing colorless in small amounts, but showing distinct blue color in large masses.

Water weighs about 8 pounds per gallon.

Water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C, and can be identified thus because no other substance has these freezing and boiling points.

Water evaporates and becomes a gas AT ALL TEMPERATURES. Its evaporation is faster at higher temperatures.

When water is boiled at 100c an increase in temperature does not make the temp of the water rise higher, the water temp stays 100c as long as steam allowed to escape.

Applying heat to ice makes it melt but the water coming off the frozen water is 0c same as the parent ice crystal.

WATER TAKES MORE HEAT TO RAISE ITS TEMPERATURE THAN AN EQUAL WEIGHT OF ANY OTHER SOliD OR LIQUID, THEREFORE THE TEMP OF WATER CHANGES MORE SLOWLY THAN OTHER SUBSTANCES EXPLAINING WHY LARGE BODIES OF WATER DIRECTLY AFFECT LOCAL WEATHER AND TEMPERATURES.

Containment of steam creates explosive energy. A CUBIC INCH OF WATER CREATES ABOUT A CUBIC FOOT OF STEAM. UNDER PRESSURE WATER REQUIRES MORE ENERGY TO BOIL, HIGHER TEMPERATURE THAN 100C, AND HIGHER PRESSURES ALSO LOWER THE FREEZING POINT OF WATER, TENDING TOWARD LIQUIDITY. DISSOLVED SOLIDS HAVE THE SAME EFFECT, THUS SALT WATER IS HARDER TO BOIL OR FREEZE THAN PURE WATER.

water expands upon freezing. *****************************THE WEIGHT OF A CUBIC CENTIMETER OF WATER AT 4DEGREESC (AT NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC PRESSUR E) IS 1 GRAM. AT 4 DEGREES C WATER POSSESES ITS MAXIMUM DENSITY. NOT ONLY DOES IT EXPAND WHEN HEATED BUT ALSO EXPANDS WHEN COOLED. THIS EXPANSION OF WATER BETWEEN 4 DEGREE C AND 0 DEGREE C IS VERY UNUSUAL, AS MOST OTHER SUBSTANCES CONTRACT UPON COOLING. Ice per kg takes up almost 91cc more than when in liquid form. This causes ice to be lighter than liquid water, and allows our type of nature to exist. If ice were heavier than water it would sink to the bottom of reservoirs and all water bodies would regularly freeze solid, thereby sterilizing them of most life.

Under enough pressure as normal glacial ice, h2o crystals become cubic.
glacial coring article

Because of its unique shape (as water) h20 molecule positive on one end and neg on other.....I dont get this, but it is a valuable reiteration/simplificaTION)....minerals with Scovill

At 2,000 atmospheres pressure four new types of ice occur in quick succession. at 20,000 atmospheres pressure, water freezes at +78 degrees c!

As a naturally occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered to be a mineral.[8][9] It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms, or H–O–H. However, many of the physical properties of water and ice are controlled by the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent oxygen and hydrogen atoms; while it is a weak bond, it is nonetheless critical in controlling the structure of both water and ice.

Heavy water, h2o2, also known as peroxide, degrades rapidly into h2o under normal circumstances.

It takes high energy to split water into monatomic H and O form, although by doing so fuels can be created that possess nearly alchemical attributes. Brand New, Unencumbered water can only be gotton by dividing water into its monatomic constituent parts, then recombining as h2o.

Pure water is a very poor conductor of electricity. Some substances like sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, even common salt, make water an excellent conductor.

Water can be supercooled below 0c without freezing and remain a liquid unless stirred or unless an existing ice crystal is used to innoculate the crystallization effect.

The raising or lowering of one gram of water through one degree centigrade requires about one calorie of heat added or removed. However the conversion of one gram of water at 0 degree c to ice (crystalline) state requires the removal of 80 calories of heat. The melting of ice causes an absorption of heat to the same amount, called The Heat Of Fusion Of Ice.

WATER POSSESS A PURIFYING TENDENCY WHEREBY SOLIDS OR OTHER INCLUSIONS SETTLE/STRATIFY OVER VARYING PERIODS OF TIME, AND ARE EITHER EVAPORATED OUT OR FORMED INTO MUD AT THE BOTTOM OF THE RESERVOIR. The creation of clay in soils is one of the chemical changes of water. Pressure of depth is integral to this process.


Ice molecules can exhibit eighteen or more different phases (packing geometries) that depend on temperature and pressure. When water is cooled rapidly (quenching), up to three different types of amorphous ice can form depending on the history of its pressure and temperature. When cooled slowly correlated proton tunneling occurs below −253.15 °C (20 K, −423.67 °F) giving rise to macroscopic quantum phenomena. Virtually all the ice on Earth's surface and in its atmosphere is of a hexagonal crystalline structure denoted as ice Ih (spoken as "ice one h") with minute traces of cubic ice denoted as ice Ic. The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It may also be deposited directly by water vapor, as happens in the formation of frost. The transition from ice to water is melting and from ice directly to water vapor is sublimation.




Water cluster
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Hypothetical (H2O)100 icosahedral water cluster and the underlying structure.

In chemistry a water cluster is a discrete hydrogen bonded assembly or cluster of molecules of water.[1] These clusters have been found experimentally or predicted in silico in various forms of water; in ice, in crystal lattices and in bulk liquid water, the simplest one being the water dimer (H2O)2 . Shu et al. reported the images of water clusters of 100 micrometres.[2][3] Ongoing academic research is important because the realization that water manifests itself as clusters rather than an isotropic collection may help explain many anomalous water characteristics such as its highly unusual density temperature dependence. Water clusters are also implicated in the stabilization of certain supramolecular structures. So little is understood about water clusters in bulk water that it is considered one of the unsolved problems in chemistry.[citation needed]
Contents

1 Theoretical studies (in-silico structures)
2 Experimental structures
3 Bulk water models
4 See also
5 References

Theoretical studies (in-silico structures)

In-silico (see: water models), cyclic water clusters (H2O)n are found with n = 3 to 60.[4][5] Structures of water molecules with the highest resolution have been demonstrated in the studies of Richard Saykally of Berkeley College of Chemistry.[6] With increasing cluster size the oxygen to oxygen distance is found to decrease which is attributed to so-called cooperative many-body interactions: due to a change in charge distribution the H-acceptor molecule becomes a better H-donor molecule with each expansion of the water assembly. Many isomeric forms seem to exist for the hexamer: from ring, book, bag, cage, to prism shape with nearly identical energy. Two cage-like isomers exist for heptamers, and octamers are found either cyclic or in the shape of a cube. Even larger clusters are predicted: the fullerene-like cluster (H2O)28 is called the water buckyball and even for a 280 water molecule monster icosahedral network (with each water molecule coordinate to 4 others) there is found a local energy minimum. The 280 molecule icosahedral structure, which is 3 nm in diameter, consists of icosahedral shells with 280, 100 and 320 molecules (the 100 molecule structure is shown the figure above).[7][8] There is increased stability with the addition of each shell.[9] A look at the recent scientific literature may reveal good reviews on the studies of water clusters employing ab initio methods.[10][11] These clusters are also important for studying hydration phenomena at molecular level since they form the basic building blocks of the hydrated clusters.[12][13][14] There are theoretical models of water clusters of more than 700 water molecules by Martin Chaplin and Stanislav Zenin.[15][16] They have not been proven experimentally.
Experimental structures

Shu et al. observed water clusters under microscope. The experiments were conducted in two ways. One is making sodium chloride solutions and sampling water clusters from the solution, then putting the solution with water clusters on a glass slide under a microscope. The second method is putting a drop of Milli Q water on a glass slide under a microscope and putting a grain of salt next to the water drop, then pushing the salt grain inside the water drop. Under the microscope, salt starts to dissolve and break into smaller salt particles. Some of the salt particles enter water clusters and reveal the appearance of those clusters.

The experimental observation[17][18] of water clusters requires sophisticated spectroscopic tools such as Far-infrared (FIR) vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy (an infrared spectroscopy technique). With water trapped in a liquid helium environment the hexamer is found to be a cyclic planar assembly but in the gas-phase the cage is found and in an organic host (water trapped in the crystal lattice of an organic compound) a conformation reminiscent of a cyclohexane chair conformation. Experiments combining IR spectroscopy with mass spectrometry reveal cubic configurations for clusters in the range W8-W10.

When the water is part of a crystal structure as in a hydrate, x-ray diffraction can be used. Conformation of a water heptamer was determined (cyclic twisted nonplanar) using this method[19]. Further, multi-layered water clusters with formulae (H2O)100 trapped inside cavities of several polyoxometalate clusters were also reported by Mueller et. al.[20].[21].

Experimental study of any supramolecular structures in bulk water is difficult because of their short lifetime: the hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming at the timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds.[22]
Bulk water models

According to the so-called in silico method quantum cluster equilibrium (QCE) theory of liquids W8[clarification needed] clusters dominate the liquid water bulk phase followed by W5 and W6 clusters. In order to facilitate a water triple point the presence of a W24 cluster is invoked. In another model bulk water is built up from a mixture of hexamer and pentamer rings containing cavities capable of enclosing small solutes. In yet another model an equilibrium exists between a cubic water octamer and two cyclic tetramers. However, in spite of much model-making, no model yet has reproduced the experimentally-observed density maximum.[23][24]
See also

Hydrogen bond
Mpemba effect
Richard J. Saykally
Water (properties)

References

Ralf Ludwig (2001). "Water: From Clusters to the Bulk". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40 (10): 1808–1827. doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20010518)40:10<1808::AID-ANIE1808>3.0.CO;2-1. PMID 11385651.
Shu, L., Obagbemi, I. J., Jegatheesan, V., Liyanaarachchi, S., Baskaran, K. (2015) Effect of multiple cations in the feed solution on the performance of forward osmosis, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 54, pp845-852.
Shu, L., Wu, S., Jegatheesan, V. (2013) Directly observe sodium chloride aggregates waltzing through dilute solutions, in ed., Shu, L., Jegatheesan, V., Pandey, A. Virkutyte, J., Djati Utomo, H. Solutions to Environmental Challenges through Innovation in Research, Asiatech, New Delhi. ISBN 81-87680-31-8.
Fowler, P. W., Quinn, C. M., Redmond, D. B. (1991) Decorated fullerenes and model structures for water clusters, The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 95, No 10, p. 7678.
Ignatov, I., Mosin, O. V. (2013) Structural Mathematical Models Describing Water Clusters, Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling, Vol. 3, No 11, pp. 72-87.
Keutsch, F. N. and Saykally, R. J. (2001) Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time, PNAS, Vol. 98, № 19, pp. 10533–10540.
Tokmachev, A.M., Tchougreeff, A.L., Dronskowski, R. (2010) Hydrogen-Bond Networks in Water Clusters: An Exhaustive Quantum-Chemical, European Journal of Chemical Physics And Physical Chemistry, Vol. 11, №2, pp. 384–388.
Sykes, М. (2007) Simulations of RNA Base Pairs in a Nanodroplet Reveal Solvation-Dependent Stability, PNAS, Vol. 104, № 30, pp. 12336–12340.
Loboda, Oleksandr; Goncharuk, Vladyslav (2010). "Theoretical study on icosahedral water clusters". Chemical Physics Letters. 484 (4–6): 144–147. Bibcode:2010CPL...484..144L. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2009.11.025.
S. Maheshwary; N. Patel; N Sathyamurthy; A. D. Kulkarni; S. R. Gadre (2001). "Structure and Stability of Water Clusters (H2O)n, n = 8-20: An Ab Initio Investigation". J. Phys. Chem. A. 105 (46): 10525. Bibcode:2001JPCA..10510525M. doi:10.1021/jp013141b.
G. S. Fanourgakis; E. Aprà; W. A. de Jong; S. S. Xantheas (2005). "High-level ab initio calculations for the four low-lying families of minima of (H2O)20. II. Spectroscopic signatures of the dodecahedron, fused cubes, face-sharinbucky water g pentagonal prisms, and edge-sharing pentagonal prisms hydrogen bonding networks". J. Chem. Phys. 122 (13): 134304. Bibcode:2005JChPh.122m4304F. doi:10.1063/1.1864892. PMID 15847462.
A. D. Kulkarni; S. R. Gadre; S. Nagase (2008). "Quantum chemical and electrostatic studies of anionic water clusters(H2O)n−". J. Mol. Str. Theochem. 851 (1–3): 213. doi:10.1016/j.theochem.2007.11.019.
A. D. Kulkarni; K. Babu; L. J. Bartolotti; S. R. Gadre. (2004). "Exploring Hydration Patterns of Aldehydes and Amides: Ab Initio Investigations". J. Phys. Chem. A. 108 (13): 2492. Bibcode:2004JPCA..108.2492K. doi:10.1021/jp0368886.
A. D. Kulkarni; R. K. Pathak; L. J. Bartolotti. (2005). "Structures, Energetics, and Vibrational Spectra of H2O2···(H2O)n, n = 1−6 Clusters: Ab Initio Quantum Chemical Investigations". J. Phys. Chem. A. 109 (20): 4583. Bibcode:2005JPCA..109.4583K. doi:10.1021/jp044545h.
Chaplin, M. F. (2013) What is liquid water, Science in Society, Iss. 58, 41-45.
Zenin, S. V.(2002)Water, Federal Center for Traditional Methods for Diagnostics and Treatment, Moscow
C. J. Gruenloh; J. R. Carney; C. A. Arrington; T. S. Zwier; S. Y. Fredericks; K. D. Jordan (1997). "Infrared Spectrum of a Molecular Ice Cube: The S4 and D2d Water Octamers in Benzene-(Water)8". Science. 276 (5319): 1678. doi:10.1126/science.276.5319.1678.
M. R. Viant; J. D. Cruzan; D. D. Lucas; M. G. Brown; K. Liu; R. J. Saykally (1997). "Pseudorotation in Water Trimer Isotopomers Using Terahertz Laser Spectroscopy". J. Phys. Chem. A. 101 (48): 9032. Bibcode:1997JPCA..101.9032V. doi:10.1021/jp970783j.
M. H. Mir; J. J. Vittal (2007). "Phase Transition Accompanied by Transformation of an Elusive Discrete Cyclic Water Heptamer to a Bicyclic (H2O)7 Cluster". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (31): 5925–5928. doi:10.1002/anie.200701779. PMID 17577896.
T. Mitra; P. Miró; A.-R. Tomsa; A. Merca; H. Bögge; J. B. Ávalos; J. M. Poblet; C. Bo; A. Müller (2009). "Gated and Differently Functionalized (New) Porous Capsules Direct Encapsulates' Structures: Higher and Lower Density Water". Chem. Eur. J. 15 (8): 1844–1852. doi:10.1002/chem.200801602.
A. Müller; E. Krickemeyer; H. Bögge; M. Schmidtmann; S. Roy; A. Berkle (2002). "Changeable Pore Sizes Allowing Effective and Specific Recognition by a Molybdenum-Oxide Based "Nanosponge": En Route to Sphere-Surface and Nanoporous-Cluster Chemistry". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41 (19): 3604–3609. doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20021004)41.
Smith, Jared D.; Christopher D. Cappa; Kevin R. Wilson; Ronald C. Cohen; Phillip L. Geissler; Richard J. Saykally (2005). "Unified description of temperature-dependent hydrogen-bond rearrangements in liquid water" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (40): 14171–14174. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10214171S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0506899102. PMC 1242322. PMID 16179387.
Borowski, Piotr; Jaroniec, Justyna; Janowski, Tomasz; Woliński, Krzysztof (2003). "Quantum cluster equilibrium theory treatment of hydrogen-bonded liquids: Water, methanol and ethanol". Molecular Physics. 101 (10): 1413. Bibcode:2003MolPh.101.1413B. doi:10.1080/0026897031000085083.
Lehmann, S. B. C.; Spickermann, C.; Kirchner, B. (2009). "Quantum Cluster Equilibrium Theory Applied in Hydrogen Bond Number Studies of Water. 1. Assessment of the Quantum Cluster Equilibrium Model for Liquid Water". Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 5 (6): 1640. doi:10.1021/ct800310a.

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In spite of much work, many of the properties of water remain puzzling. A fluctuating network of water molecules, with localised icosahedral symmetry, is proposed to exist derived from clusters containing, if complete, 280 fully hydrogen-bonded molecules. These are formed by the regular arrangement of identical units of 14 water molecules that can tessellate locally, by changing centres, in three-dimensions and interconvert between lower and higher density forms. The structure allows explanation of many of the anomalous properties of water including its temperature-density and pressure-viscosity behaviour, the radial distribution pattern, the presence of both pentamers and hexamers, the change in properties and 'two-state' model on supercooling and the solvation properties of ions, hydrophobic molecules, carbohydrates and macromolecules. The model described here offers a structure on to which large molecules can be mapped in order to offer insights into their interactions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Bibliography
Wkipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
1955 USDA Yearbook, Water
Browns Gas, Books One & Two, George Wiseman
Smiths College Chemistry, Copyright 1935
First Principles Of Chemistry, 1937 Edition, Brownlee Fuller Hancock Sohon Whitsit




below are random notes i have kept from various places:

We now know that water has the ability to record energy signatures or information into its structure. This is what we call memory. This is not a matter of chemistry, but of physics. We can clean, filter, purify water in a variety of ways, so that when put through a strict chemical analysis, it will only register H2O; but unburdening water of the memory of the many chemicals, pathogens, electro-magnetic frequencies, etc… that it has encountered, is ‘another matter’, to make a bad pun.

If you know anything about homeopathy, you know that a homeopathic solution begins as an actual substance which is then diluted so many times in either water or an alcohol/water mix, that the final product registers no substance at all when put through chemical analysis; yet, homeopathy has been considered an effective medical tool in many countries for almost two hundred years. This implies that matter has an associated energy, which can remain in a liquid well after the substance of the matter is no longer present. We could call this the memory of the substance of the matter. Water and water based solutions seem to be especially good for capturing and keeping memory.
One of the first scientists to focus his attention on proving the reality of memory in water, was the renowned French immunologist Jacques Benveniste, who was awarded two Nobel Prizes in Chemistry. The first Nobel Prize Awarded him in 1991 describes Benveniste as a ‘prolific proselytizer’ and dedicated correspondent of Nature, for his persistent belief that water, H2O, is an intelligent liquid, and for demonstrating to his satisfaction that water is able to remember events long after all trace of those events has vanished." The second Nobel Prize given to him in 1998 cites "his homeopathic discovery: that not only does water have memory, but that the information can be transmitted over telephone lines and the Internet."
Russian scientists have been among the leaders in this research into the memory of water. In 2003, at the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian scientist Stanislav Zenin upheld a thesis on water's memory. The thesis' author owns a laboratory and studied clathrates, stable compounds (that can live up to several hours!) consisting of 912 water molecules of half-micron or micron in size. You can even see them through the phase-contrast microscope.

Zenin established the difference between water's primary memory and long-term memory. Primary memory or short term memory becomes apparent after a single impact. It is a reversible change in water's structure and a reflection of the new electromagnetic picture on clathrates' surface.

As for the long-term memory, it is a complete transformation of the matrix clathrates' structural elements as a result of long information influence.

Both short and long term memory is what we seek to root out of the Revitalized Biogenic Activator in its stages of treatment, otherwise we could be serving up a homeopathic soup of memories of pathogens, chemicals, negative thoughts, etc… that this water may have encountered in its complex journey to the bottling plant.

This long term memory potential of water, however, also serves us in the making of Revitalized Biogenic Activator, as we know how to lock-in positive, life-supporting energetic signatures, or memories, into our product, which get even stronger with time, and block the our Biogenic Activator from being negatively influenced by elements and forces which can suppress and damage our life functions. These influences are the opposite of life supporting.



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Water memory
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Water memoryClaims Under certain circumstances water can retain a "memory" of solute particles after arbitrarily large dilution.
Related scientific disciplines Homeopathy, alternative medicine, pseudoscience
Year proposed 1988
Original proponents Jacques Benveniste
Subsequent proponents Madeleine Ennis
Brian Josephson
Luc Montagnier
Various homeopaths
Pseudoscientific concepts

Water memory is the purported ability of water to retain a memory of substances previously dissolved in it even after an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. It has been claimed to be a mechanism by which homeopathic remedies work, even though they are diluted to the point that no single molecule of the original substance remains.

Water memory defies conventional scientific understanding of physical chemistry knowledge and is not accepted by the scientific community. In 1988, Jacques Benveniste published a study supporting a water memory effect amid controversy in Nature, accompanied by an editorial by Nature's editor John Maddox urging readers to "suspend judgement" until the results can be replicated. In the years following publication, multiple supervised experiments were run by Benveniste's team, the United States Department of Defense,[1] BBC's Horizon programme,[2] and other researchers, but no team has ever reproduced Benveniste's results in controlled conditions.
Contents

1 Benveniste's study
1.1 Implications
1.2 Publication in Nature
2 Post-publication supervised experiments
2.1 Aftermath
3 Subsequent research
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

Benveniste's study

Benveniste was a French immunologist who sought to demonstrate the plausibility of homeopathic remedies "independently of homeopathic interests" in a major scientific journal.[3] To that end, Benveniste and his team at Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, French for National Institute of Health and Medical Research) diluted a solution of human antibodies in water to such a degree that there was virtually no possibility that a single molecule of the antibody remained in the water solution. Nonetheless, they reported, human basophils responded to the solutions just as though they had encountered the original antibody (part of the allergic reaction). The effect was reported only when the solution was shaken violently during dilution.[4] Benveniste stated: "It's like agitating a car key in the river, going miles downstream, extracting a few drops of water, and then starting one's car with the water."[5] At the time, Benveniste offered no theoretical explanation for the effect, which was later called "water memory" by a journalist reporting on the study.[6]
Implications

While Benveniste's study demonstrated a mechanism by which homeopathic remedies could operate, the mechanism defied conventional scientific understanding[clarification needed] of physical chemistry knowledge.[5][7][8] A paper about hydrogen bond dynamics[9] is mentioned by some secondary sources[10][11] in connection to the implausibility of water memory.
Publication in Nature

Benveniste submitted his research to the prominent science journal Nature for publication. There was concern on the part of Nature's editorial oversight board that the material, if published, would lend credibility to homeopathic practitioners even if the effects were not replicable.[5] There was equal concern that the research was simply wrong, given the changes that it would demand of the known laws of physics and chemistry. The editor of Nature, John Maddox, stated that, "Our minds were not so much closed as unready to change our whole view of how science is constructed."[5] Rejecting the paper on any objective grounds was deemed unsupportable, as there were no methodological flaws apparent at the time.

In the end, a compromise was reached. The paper was published in Nature Vol. 333 on 30 June 1988,[4] but it was accompanied with an editorial by Maddox that noted "There are good and particular reasons why prudent people should, for the time being, suspend judgement" and described some of the fundamental laws of chemistry and physics which it would violate, if shown to be true.[7] Additionally, Maddox demanded that the experiments be re-run under the supervision of a hand-picked group of what became known as "ghostbusters", including Maddox, famed magician and paranormal researcher James Randi, and Walter W. Stewart, a chemist and freelance debunker at the U.S. National Institutes of Health.[12]
Post-publication supervised experiments

Under supervision of Maddox and his team, Benveniste and his team of researchers followed the original study's procedure and produced results similar to those of the first published data. Maddox, however, noted that during the procedure the experimenters were aware of which test tubes originally contained the antibodies and which did not. Benveniste's team then started a second, blinded experimental series with Maddox and his team in charge of the double-blinding: notebooks were photographed, the lab videotaped, and vials juggled and secretly coded. Randi even went so far as to wrap the labels in newspaper, seal them in an envelope, and then stick them on the ceiling so Benveniste and his team could not read them.[13] The blinded experimental series showed no water memory effect.

Maddox's team published a report on the supervised experiments in the next issue (July 1988) of Nature.[14] Maddox's team concluded "that there is no substantial basis for the claim that anti-IgE at high dilution (by factors as great as 10120) retains its biological effectiveness, and that the hypothesis that water can be imprinted with the memory of past solutes is as unnecessary as it is fanciful." Maddox's team initially speculated that someone in the lab "was playing a trick on Benveniste",[5] but later concluded, "We believe the laboratory has fostered and then cherished a delusion about the interpretation of its data." Maddox also pointed out that two of Benveniste's researchers were being paid by the French homeopathic company Boiron.[14]
Aftermath

In a response letter published in the same July issue of Nature, Benveniste lashed out at Maddox and complained about the "ordeal" he endured at the hands of the Nature team, comparing it to "Salem witchhunts or McCarthy-like prosecutions."[15] Both in the Nature response and during a later episode of Quirks and Quarks, Benveniste especially complained about Stewart, who he claimed acted as if they were all frauds and treated them with disdain, complaining about his "typical know-it-all attitude". In his Nature letter, Benveniste also implied that Randi was attempting to hoodwink the experimental run by doing magic tricks, "distracting the technician in charge of its supervision!" He was more apologetic on Quirks and Quarks, re-phrasing his mention of Randi to imply that he had kept the team amused with his tricks and that his presence was generally welcomed. He also pointed out that although it was true two of his team members were being paid by a homeopathic company, the same company had paid Maddox's team's hotel bill.

Maddox was unapologetic, stating "I'm sorry we didn't find something more interesting." On the same Quirks and Quarks show he dismissed Benveniste's complaints, stating that because of the possibility that the results would be unduly promoted by the homeopathy community, an immediate re-test was necessary. The failure of the tests demonstrated that the initial results were likely due to the experimenter effect. He also pointed out that the entire test procedure that Benveniste later complained about was one that had been agreed upon in advance by all parties. It was only after the test failed that Benveniste disputed its appropriateness.

The debate continued in the letters section of Nature for several issues before being ended by the editorial board. It continued in the French press for some time,[16] and in September Benveniste appeared on the British television discussion programme After Dark to debate the events live with Randi and others. In spite of all the arguing over the retests, it had done nothing to stop what Maddox worried about: even in light of the tests' failure, they were still being used to claim that the experiments "prove" that homeopathy works.[17] One of Benveniste's co-authors on the Nature paper, Francis Beauvais, later stated that while unblinded experimental trials usually yielded "correct" results (i.e. ultradiluted samples were biologically active, controls were not), "the results of blinded samples were almost always at random and did not fit the expected results: some 'controls' were active and some 'active' samples were without effect on the biological system."[18]
Subsequent research

In the cold fusion or polywater controversies many scientists started replications immediately, because the underlying theories did not go directly against scientific fundamental principles and could be accommodated with a few tweaks to those principles.[19] But Benveniste's experiment went directly against several principles, causing most researchers to outright reject the results as errors or fabrication, with only a few researchers willing to perform replications or experiments that could validate or reject his hypotheses.[19]

After the Nature controversy, Benveniste gained the public support of Brian Josephson,[20] a Nobel laureate physicist with a reputation for openness to paranormal claims. Experiments continued along the same basic lines, culminating with a 1997 paper claiming the effect could be transmitted over phone lines.[21] This was followed by two additional papers in 1999[22] and another from 2000, in the controversial non-peer reviewed Medical Hypotheses, on remote-transmission, by which time it was claimed that it could also be sent over the Internet.[23][unreliable medical source?]

Time magazine reported in 1999 that, in response to skepticism from physicist Robert Park, Josephson had challenged the American Physical Society (APS) to oversee a replication by Benveniste. This challenge was to be "a randomized double-blind test", of his claimed ability to transfer the characteristics of homeopathically altered solutions over the Internet:

"[Benveniste's] latest theory, and the cause of the current flap, is that the 'memory' of water in a homeopathic solution has an electromagnetic 'signature.' This signature, he says, can be captured by a copper coil, digitized and transmitted by wire—or, for extra flourish, over the Internet—to a container of ordinary water, converting it to a homeopathic solution."[24]

The APS accepted the challenge and offered to cover the costs of the test. When he heard of this, Randi offered to throw in the long-standing $1 million prize for any positive demonstration of the paranormal, to which Benveniste replied: "Fine to us."[25] In his DigiBio NewsLetter. Randi later noted that Benveniste and Josephson did not follow up on their challenge, mocking their silence on the topic as if they were missing persons.[26]

An independent test of the 2000 remote-transmission experiment was carried out in the USA by a team funded by the United States Department of Defense. Using the same experimental devices and setup as the Benveniste team, they failed to find any effect when running the experiment. Several "positive" results were noted, but only when a particular one of Benveniste's researchers was running the equipment. "We did not observe systematic influences such as pipetting differences, contamination, or violations in blinding or randomization that would explain these effects from the Benveniste investigator. However, our observations do not exclude these possibilities."

Benveniste admitted to having noticed this himself. "He stated that certain individuals consistently get digital effects and other individuals get no effects or block those effects."[27]

Third-party attempts at replication of the Benveniste experiment have failed to produce positive results that could be independently replicated. In 1993, Nature published a paper describing a number of follow-up experiments that failed to find a similar effect,[28] and an independent study published in Experientia in 1992 showed no effect.[29] An international team led by Professor Madeleine Ennis of Queen's University of Belfast claimed in 1999 to have replicated the Benveniste results.[30][31] Randi then forwarded the $1 million challenge to the BBC Horizon program to prove the "water memory" theory following Ennis's experimental procedure. In response, experiments were conducted with the vice-president of the Royal Society, Professor John Enderby, overseeing the proceedings. The challenge ended with no memory effect observed by the Horizon team.[2] For a piece on homeopathy, the ABC program 20/20 also attempted, unsuccessfully, to reproduce Ennis's results.[32] Ennis has claimed that these tests did not follow her own experiment protocols.[33]
See also

Hexagonal water
DNA teleportation
List of experimental errors and frauds in physics
List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
Pathological science
Pseudoscience
Scientific misconduct
Masaru Emoto
Homeopathic dilutions

References

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Beauvais, Francis (2016) Ghosts of Molecules - The case of the "memory of water", Coll. Mille-Mondes [1], Ed. Lulu.com, ISBN 978-1-326-45874-4 (Chapter 1, page 15).
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Homeopathy breakthrough
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Benveniste, J; Aissa, J; Guillonnet, D. "The molecular signal is not functional in the absence of "informed" water". FASEB Journal. 13 (4): A163.
Thomas, Y.; Schiff, M.; Belkadi, L.; Jurgens, P.; Kahhak, L.; Benveniste, J. (2000). "Activation of human neutrophils by electronically transmitted phorbol–myristate acetate". Medical Hypotheses. 54 (1): 33–39. doi:10.1054/mehy.1999.0891. PMID 10790721.
Leon Jaroff, Homeopathic E-Mail, Time Magazine, May 9, 1999
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Ennis, Madeleine. "E-mail from Professor Ennis on the specific differences in her study and the studies by ABC News (20/20) and the BBC". homeopathic.com. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
 
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